Media Communication Strategies : lexicon

Lexique Media FR

These definitions reflect the evolving landscape of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) and ICS (Information and Communication Sciences) and its pervasive influence on society, emphasizing the interplay between technological advancements and their practical applications in various domains.

Agenda Setting

Agenda setting is a concept where the issues the public believes are important, are decided by the media. Agenda Setting is first mentioned by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw in 1972. It was introduced when they conducted a survey for the 1968 U.S Presidential elections to figure out what issues were important at the time for voters. What they found was that the issues important to voters were the same issues mass media were reporting as important. Basically, media decides what issues the public will focus their attention on, which makes the public believe those issues are more important than the rest. This is seen mostly during political campaigns, where media shapes issues importance instead of reflecting on them.

cf. McCombs, Shaw, « The agenda-setting function of mass media », Public Opinion Quarterly, 1972, vol. 36, p. 176-187.


An algorithm is a kind of a recipe that describes the exact steps indeed to reach a goal. The word algorithm has its roots in Latinizing the name of Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi in a first step to algorismus.

cf. « Panique algorithmique, ces algorithmes qui nous gouverne », Le Point, illustration

Augmented reality

Augmented reality refers to a computer systems that make possible the superimposition of a virtual 3D model or 2D the perception we have of course the reality and this in real time. It refers to the various methods to embed realistic virtual objects in an image sequence. It applies as well to visual perception (virtual image superimposed on real images) as « proprioceptive » perceptions such as touch or auditory perceptions.


Saturation, exhaustion. In particular, it may designate a burnout syndrome. The diagnosis of this state of fatigue classifies this disease in the category professional psychosocial risks and as a consequence of exposure to extended. In Japan, the translation would even be « death by overloading work » (Karōshi). + cf. boreout /brownout.

Citizen journalism

The expression “citizen journalists” emerged after the tsunami in Southeast Asia in December 2004 as people took video’s and pictures that were published online.

The role of citizen journalism is to develop information and communication to the internet. It´s an active role from the lambda citizens, in the process of collecting and reporting news and it can be anyone. Any citizen that has a smart phone and who is on social media platforms can perform a « Glocal news´´ and being an eye journalist, as the object is happening if front of citizens.

The Article about the 4th European conference for science journalists that took place in Copenhagen in 2017 citizen journalism; a phenomenon that is here to stay: it´s also mentioning that citizen journalism is a threat to the professional, as the video’s and photos posted by citizens from an event before the professional journalists appears.

For Stuart Allan, Head of the school of journalism, media and cultural studies at Cardiff University: “the term includes someone who happens to be in the right place at the wrong time with their smartphone in their pocket and as the presence of mind to bear witness to something unfolding before them”.



Cloudsourcing is a process whereby specialized computing products (services and maintenance) are entrusted to one or more cloud computing service providers. It allows organizations to recover their entire IT infrastructure from a cloud, which integrates easily to any platform and requires no management fee. Even if we do not yet find a stable definition for the expression cloudworking closed to « e-working« , it is used about a mode of work according to which the main part of the collaboration is carried out on line. This term is marking because it crystallizes a change of epoch but it is not to detach from the new territories of work. In « new territories of labor », there is the idea of exploration, which describes the current context in  which the status freelancer, self-employed or self-entrepreneur is increasingly attracting assets.

Cloudworking refers also a realization of the work by an employee outside the company’s premises by means of communication which connect him to this one, whether mobile phones, laptops, private connections to the internal network of the company or hosted tools in the cloud. In time of Covid Crisis, cloudworking in French can also refer to « distanciel » (opposite of »presentiel »).


A cluster (or cluster of competitiveness) is a concentration of interconnected companies and institutions in a geographical territory. A cluster can be defined as a region, usually urban areas, where there is accumulated know-how in a given technical field, which can competitive advantage at the international level. The economic growth generated tends to spread to other activities, particularly in services and subcontracting.


Computing refers to any activity that focuses on objectives requiring, benefiting or creating from computers. By example, computing includes the design, development and construction of hardware and software, processing, structuring and managing different kinds of information, doing research scientists on and with computers; that computer systems behave in a way that intelligent, creating and using communications and entertainment, etc.


The term « creativity » refers to the formulation of new ideas and the application of these ideas to the production of works original art and cultural products, functional creations, scientific inventions and innovations technology. Also, artistic creativity refers to the imagination and the ability to generate ideas and new ways of interpreting the world, through text, sound and image.

Creative City /Creative territory

The creative city is a concept developed by the town planner Charles Landry in the 1980s and has since become a global movement that reflects a new paradigm of planning for cities.

A creative territory would be a place associated with a quality of life that would be central to territorial marketing, in particular in order to attract new businesses. The convergence of technologies and offers opportunities for growth and acquisition of specific and competitive industrial positions. These movements make culture and creativity the key stakes for territories, both from the point of view of their branding in order to attract investors. Creativity and creativite territories are then clearly considered from the point of view of the knowledge economy and the digital world in the era of glocalization.

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Creative class

US geographer Richard Florida introduced the term « creative class » to emphasize the role creative people in the creative age. He argues that the economy moves from a companies to a people-oriented system. The term « creative class » therefore refers to a population urban, mobile, skilled and connected, which is mainly defined by the slogan « Talent, Technology and Tolerance « .

To the notion of creative class, Florida combines a theory of economic development of cities that makes the attraction of creative class members a key to the creation of new activities. This thesis is supported by spatial correlations between the development of cities and the indices of cultural of tolerance.

Creative economy

Creative economy refers to the growth of creativity and creativity in the economy as a whole. It is a group of activities exploiting the aesthetic and artistic inventiveness of groups of creative workers.

Creative Industry

Various commentators provided suggestions on activities to be included in the concept of « creative industries » and the name itself is controversial – with significant differences and overlaps between the terms cultural industries creative industries and creative economy (Hesmondhalgh 2002).

If we look at the genesis of expression, we note that the political and theoretical origins come from a British notion: creative industries (Hesmondhalgh 2002, Howkins 2001). Early writers such as David Hesmondhalgh, researcher at the Media Industries Research Centre at the University of Leeds and John Howkins, author of The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas (2002), define the creative industries as a whole, economic activities related to the production or exploitation of knowledge and information. Very quickly, this terminology is taken up by international, supranational organizations, governments, local authorities, statistical institutions, socio-economic actors throughout the world.

Nowadays, Creative economy refers to the growth of creativity in the economy as a whole. It is a group of activities exploiting the aesthetic and artistic inventiveness of groups of creative workers.

Commons (Digital commons)

In English, « communal lands » in the literal sense, « common property » in the figurative sense. Informally speaking, digital common goods involve the distribution and ownership of information and technological resources. Resources are generally designed to be used by the community through which they were created.

Examples of digital commons: Wikipedia, Wikimedia, Creative Commons, Open Source, etc.

Social Media/Community manager

The community manager – or even the community animator for french speakers– refers to somebody which the role in a business is to involve animating and federating communities on the Web for a structure, a company, an association, a NGO, a brand, a celebrity, an institution or a product, for examples. The community manager is involved both in the monitoring of information, the setting up of content and the creation and running of communities.

Cross-Cultural Communication

Cross-cultural communication has become strategically important to companies due to the growth of global business, technology and the Internet. Understanding cross-cultural communication is important for any company that has a diverse workforce or plans on conducting global business. This type of communication involves an understanding of how people from different cultures speak, communicate, and perceive the world around them.

Cross-cultural communication in an organization deals with understanding different business customs, beliefs and communication strategies. Language differences, high-context vs. low-context cultures, nonverbal differences, and power distance are major factors that can affect cross-cultural communication.

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Cross cultural management

Cross-cultural management is the study of management in a cross-cultural context. It includes the study of the influence of societal culture on managers and management practice as well as the study of the cultural orientations of individual managers and organization members. At the individual level the values, cognitive structures, and reactions of individuals to their cultural context and experience figure prominently. Contributing disciplines include cross-cultural psychology, sociology, and anthropology as well as the broader disciplines of management and organizational behavior and the related area of international human resource management. General topic areas include the cultural context in which management must take place, the various roles of the international manager, the influence of culture on organizational structure and processes, and management across nations and cultures.

Cross cultural studies

Cross-cultural studies are research comparing human behaviors across two or more cultures. This, in order to understand variations of human behavior as it is influenced by cultural context. The first cross-cultural studies appears by the 19th century, with anthropologists such as the British Edward Burnett TYLOR (1832 – 1917) or the New Yorker Lewis H. MORGAN (1818-1881). In the recent decades historians and particularly historians of science started looking at the mechanism and networks by which knowledge, ideas, skills, instruments and books moved across cultures, generating new and fresh concepts concerning the order of things in nature. Cross-cultural studies, also called comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and other Human Sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science, information and communication sciences). Cross cultural studies uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. Cross-cultural studies is the third form of cross-cultural comparisons. Unlike comparative studies, which examines similar characteristics of a few societies, cross-cultural studies uses a sufficiently large sample so that statistical analysis can be made to show relationships or lack of relationships between the traits in question. These studies are surveys of ethnographic data.

Cross cultural management

Cross-cultural management is the study of management in a cross-cultural context. It includes the study of the influence of societal culture on managers and management practice as well as the study of the cultural orientations of individual managers and organization members. At the individual level the values, cognitive structures, and reactions of individuals to their cultural context and experience figure prominently. Contributing disciplines include cross-cultural psychology, sociology, and anthropology as well as the broader disciplines of management and organizational behavior and the related area of international human resource management. General topic areas include the cultural context in which management must take place, the various roles of the international manager, the influence of culture on organizational structure and processes, and management across nations and cultures.

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In French, one could translate « crowd » by « foule ». But also by « a great number of people gathered together », « the common people / the populace » or « a lot of things positioned or considered as a whole ».

Participatory finance (or collection) is an expression describing all the tools and methods of financial transaction between individuals with little or no inter mediation by traditional actors. The emergence of participatory finance platforms has been allowed through the Internet and social networks. This trend is part of a more global movement: that of collaborative consumption.

Cultural awareness

Someone’s cultural awareness is their understanding of the differences between themselves and people from other countries or other backgrounds, especially differences in attitudes and values.

Cultural industry (Frankfurt School)

Cultural industries, in the narrowest sense, encompass those sectors which, in the field of culture economy, involve reproduction of works and widespread dissemination. The term covers the film, audiovisual, publishing, record (and musical record) industries. Today, the theme of the creative industries would complement that of the cultural industries (first translation into French of the German expression Kulturindustrie, created by the researchers of the Frankfurt School, Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer in 1944).

Founded in the 1930s by them, the Frankfurt movement suffered from the second world war as many of these intellectuals had to run away from Germany to the USA. THe name came into use in the 1950s when the Institute for Social Research where these intellectuals were located re-opened its doors.

Sometimes called Francfort Circle to demonstrate the fact that it was more a group of people oriented towards the same subject than a well-established school of thinking, the 1960s and the cold war will make its theory more vivid with the arrival of Habermas or Axel Honneth. Main characteristics of analysis must be self reflexive, encompass multiple fields (e.g. litterature, musicology in addition to sociology), ability to re-invent the initial goal of the school based on present evolving context, diversity of opinions of any repetion of a dogma.

It brings together the cultural industries and all cultural and artistic production activities, whether they are live or produced as an individual entity.

For Horkheimer and Adorno, the world is structured by the cultural industry (mass culture).At that time, cultural industries are defined as a group formed by cinema, radio, press, television. It is also noted that two British authors on the subject of the creative industries (Hesmondhalgh & Howkins) can also use the term « cultural industries » to refer to the creative industries.

Cultural Relativism

Cultural relativism refers to the idea that the values, knowledge, and behaviour of people must be understood within their own cultural context. This is one of the most fundamental concepts in sociology, as it recognizes and affirms the connections between the greater social structure and trends and the everyday lives of individual people.


« e-reputation » is a generic term targeting the digital area, for any organization and any person’s reputation. To KISS, it is a digital identity that algorithms create « with or without agreement », on the Web. As soon as a person is present on the Web, he gives birth to his own online reputation.

When we perform a search on a search engine with the first and last name of a person or with a company’s name, the obtained results reveal to us, in record time, the image, true or false, of the latter. Whether it goes trough customer reviews, articles, comments, photographs etc., any content, especially if they appear in the first results pages, establish the e-reputation of a name.

Like off-line reputation, e-reputation can be good/positive or bad/negative. Web being an ocean of a disconcerting virality information, it’s very fast to change at all its online image.

« It takes 20 years old to build a reputation and five minutes to destroy it. » Warren Buffet


Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own ethnic group, nation, or culture is superior, or any reason based solely on their heritage. It is a major cause for divisions amongst members of different ethnicities, races, and religious groups in society nowadays

While many people may recognize the issue, they may fail to realize that ethnocentrism occurs everywhere and everyday at both the local and political levels and they have themselves a biased day-to-day ethnocentric behavior.

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The Gate Keeper is a word derived from the IT field. It is the person that applies to the process for dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of communication.

This means Gate Keeping falls into a role of surveillance and monitoring data. It is a  theory of mass communication is a method which allows us to keep our ability to think and behave in a normal and rational manner. the person who is responsible for controlling passwords and access rights or permissions for software that the company uses.

A secretary who controls who gets an appointment with a president of the company is an example of a gatekeeper.


Glocalization is a mixture of the end result of combining the words globalization and localization. Glocalization refers to the practice of conducting business by taking simultaneously into account both the universalizing and particularizing tendencies in contemporary social, political, and economic systems. The term, was popularized by the sociologist Roland Robertson in 1994 and coined, according to him, by economists to explain Japanese global marketing strategies for their products or services designed to benefit a local market while at the same time being developed and distributed on a global level. The phrase « Think global, act local » has been used since in various contexts, including planning, environment, education, mathematics, and business.


The GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) concerns the protection of private data. It increasesand unifies the data protection for the persons living in the European Union. The GDPR is applied since the 25/05/2018 in the 28 UE states. Its goal is to increase at once the protection of concerned persons by a treatment of theirs data privacy and the responsibility of players of this treatment. But now some websites are unattainable for UE citizens with the GDPR. And with the article 13 someother websites will be unattainable for UE citizens.


Guerrilla Marketing is an advertising strategy that focuses on low-cost unconventional marketing tactics that yield maximum results.

The original term was coined by Jay Conrad Levinson in his 1984 book ‘Guerrilla Advertising’. The term guerrilla marketing was inspired by guerrilla warfare which is a form of irregular warfare and relates to the small tactic strategies used by armed civilians. Many of these tactics includes ambushes, sabotage, raids and elements of surprise. Much like guerrilla warfare, guerrilla marketing uses the same sort of tactics in the marketing industry.

This alternative advertising style relies heavily on unconventional marketing strategy, high energy and imagination. Guerrilla Marketing is about taking the consumer by surprise, make an indelible impression and create copious amounts of social buzz. Guerrilla marketing is said to make a far more valuable impression with consumers in comparison to more traditional forms of advertising and marketing. This is due to the fact that most guerrilla marketing campaigns aim to strike the consumer at a more personal and memorable level.

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A hub can design literaly speaking, a central part of a wheel, rotating on or with the axle, and from which the spokes radiate. In term of business, nowadays, it is considerate as the effective centre of an activity, region, or network as a central airport or other transport facility from which many services operate.

ICT (Information and Communication Technologies)

Historical Context: The term gained prominence in the 1990s with the rise of the internet and the convergence of telecommunications and computing technologies.

Etymology: The term « Information and Communication Technologies » emerged in the late 20th century, combining « information » from Latin « informatio » (a concept) and « communication » from Latin « communicare » (to share).

Information and Communication Sciences:


Leadership is political, psychological, social influence of an individual or group of individuals on a group or other group. The leader has personal skills that make him different and allows him to be listened and followed by a group of people. Leadership does not equal management.


The concept of management is uncertain. Its epistemological status is controversial. According to the authors, it would be an art, or a science, or a process, or a function. For cross cultural studies, we will consider management as the control and the organization of a business or other organization. It can also be considered within plural : a group of people responsible for controlling and organizing a company, a corporate structure.

It should not be confused with leadership. According to « Trends and Perspectives in Management and Leadership Development » by Richard Bolden from the Centre of Leadership Studies « Leadership development is distinct from management development in the extent to which it involves preparing people for roles and situations beyond their current experience. Management development, he argues, equips managers with the knowledge, skills and abilities to enhance performance on known tasks through the application of proven solutions, whilst leadership development is defined as “orientated towards building capacity in anticipation of unforeseen challenges.” »


Miscommunicate is the failure to communicate ideas or intentions successfully. For Paul Watzlawick (1921-2007), Austrian-American family therapist, psychologist, communications theorist, and philosopher from the Palo Alto School, « One cannot not communicate » but « one can be misunderstood or not understood » (Pr. Alexandre Marius Baron Dées De Sterio – 1944-2006).

Narrowcasting (versus Broadcasting)

as the term implies « narrow » which means limited or restricted. Narrow casting has to do with the transmission of information to a specified group of people or audience. Thus form of information dissemination is targeted. Eg: an agricultural information transmitted as an enlightenment program to farmers or to a specific region.

In addition, the use of cable tv is a good example of narrow casting because it requires subscription and only subscribes are able to view content of the information disseminated.

Finally, narrow casting can be restrictive and could require a login details from site. This is possible due to the presence if new media technologies. Eg: the use of emails.

Broadcasting: this concept encompasses the use of old media such television and radio. The information is far reaching and not restricted. A large audience is able to receive this information through network TV. In other words, anyone who owns an antenna can receive information through TV or radio. Broadcasting is not targeted to any region, or audience.

  • Personal Branding


A prejudice can be defined as a preconceived judgment or opinion ; an adverse opinion or leaning formed without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge or even an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, a group, or their supposed characteristics.


A prosumer is a person who consumes and produces a product. It is derived from « prosumption, » a dot-com era company term meaning « consumer manufacturing. » These terms were invented in 1980 by American futurist Alvin Toffler and were commonly used by many technology authors of the moment. Today it usually relates to a individual using commons-based peer production.

This blurring of the roles of consumers and producers has its origins in the cooperative self-help movements that emerged during various economic crises, e.g. the Great Depression of the 1930s. Another example of prosumer would be: Solar, wind and other renewables, on-site battery storage, and microgrids are the future, not fads. They’re becoming reality as governments and regulators incentivise grid defection, with seemingly scant regard for the utilities that enable this change.

i.e. Solar panels for electricity / Wind turbine for water

Public Sphere

Habermas’ definition of a public sphere is the first and founding trigger to classification attempts of the formation of public opinions and the legitimization of state and democracy in post-war Western societies. It is accepted as standard work but the concept of it is challenged by many critics. Public Sphere is defined as a domain of social life where opinions can be formed. For Habermas :

“The parliament no longer is an ‘assembly of wise men chosen as individual personalities by privileged strata, who sought to convince each other through arguments in public discussion on the assumption that the subsequent decision reached by the majority would be what was true and right for the national welfare.’ Instead it has become the ‘public rostrum on which, before the entire nation (which through radio an television participates in a specific fashion in this sphere of publicity), the government and the parties carrying it present and justify to the nation their political program, while the opposition attacks this program with the same opennes and develops its alternatives.”



  • Etymology: « Robot » from Czech « robota » (forced labor) and « ization » indicating a process.
  • Historical Context: The concept of robotization became significant in the late 20th century with the advancement of industrial robots, particularly in manufacturing, starting with the introduction of Unimate in 1961.

Social listening

Le Social Listening est une technique de veille en ligne, sur les medias sociaux consistant à suivre les echanges mentionnant une marque, des produits, des concurrents en lien avec un domaine d’activité en général. Il s’agit d’utiliser ces données pour parler directement aux clients, saisir des opportunités ou bien pour adapter une stratégie marketing (ex: Brets Fromage et CeriseNoire, Twitter)


A stereotype refers to a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.

Symbolic interactionism (Chicago School)

Theory which presents society as the result of people engaging in social interaction. Social reality can therefore only described and exists in the context of the human behavior. Athough the theorical works of George Herbert Mead, this theory gained popularity thanks to Herbert Blumer, while teaching at the University of Chicago in the 1930s. The 3 main principles are:

  1. Humans act towards things (including other individuals) on the basis of the meanings they have for or give to them.
  2. The meaning of things arises out of the social interactions one has with another.
  3. Meanings are modified through a cycle: a person gives meaning to things, interacts with these things based on these meanings, and then changes and revises this meaning based on the output of his interaction.

Derived ideas include that these social interactions are possible because humans are capable of thought and this capacity comes from and is shaped by social interaction, and all these actions and interactions are the basis for making up societies or groups of people.

Think Tank

Research institute (usually independently financed) staffed with interdisciplinary group of experts engaged in the study of policy issues in business and government. The term, first applied in 1940’s to the Rand corporation (funded largely by the Ford Foundation), is now loosely applied to any group formed to solve a problem or to study a particular topic.


Viewertariat is defined as viewers that use publishing platforms and social media to freely comment, exchange ideas, opinions, experiences, and viewpoints while watching live tv (Anstead and O’Loughlin, 2011, p.441). Recent technological advances have made it possible for individuals to exchange their opinions through Social media on a real-time basis while watching TV. Live tweeting while watching political leaders give speeches or debate is an example. The emergence of Viewertariat shows a shift in consumption from passive which is when audiences are not engaging or questioning the message or information, to active which means that the audience is actively involved with the content and interprets what they are viewing it in their own personal and social contexts.

Watchdog Journalism

An individual or individuals that share information concerning institutions, companies, governments, societies etc to the public. This information shared is usually shared with the aim of getting a public reaction. One could say it’s another word for “whistleblower”.

The role of a watchdog is like that of a guardian, in order to protect the people from higher institutional abuse of power.  Before sending or sharing the information, a watchdog must fact check, construct interviews, beating reports, and investigative journalism in order for the information is accurate and adequate enough for the public.


ADLER, Nancy J., with Allison GUNDERSEN (2007). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. 5th ed. Mason, OH: Thomson Learning.

DERESKY, Helen (2013). International Management: Managing across Borders and Cultures, Text and Cases. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2013.

EARLEY, P. Christopher (2002). « Redefining interactions across cultures and organizations: moving forward with cultural intelligence ». In B. M. Staw. Research in Organizational Behavior.

HESMONDHALGH, David; BAKER, Sarah (2006). «Creative work in Cultural Industries». Communication au colloque international “Mutations des industries de la culture, de l’information et de la communication”, September 25, 26, 27, La Plaine Saint-Denis.

Available :

FLORIDA, Richard (2008). Who’s your city? How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life, New York, Basic Books.

HOWKINS, John (2002).The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas, London, Penguin Press.

LANE, Henry W., MAZNESKI Martha (2014). International Management Behavior: Global and Sustainable Leadership. 7th ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2014.

LANDRY, Charles (2000). The Creative City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators.

THOMAS, David C., PETERSON Mark F. (2014). Cross-Cultural Management. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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